Carbon, among the most abundant element in character, can become combined with itself and other components by strong covalent bonds causing many different structures which permit the growth of substances of different properties.
The carbon substances can be exceedingly tough as diamond or graphite as readily delaminated, quite compact, higher power, and so acceptable for structural applications (aircraft and racing cars), or quite porous (activated carbon); the latter being used as adsorbents for electricity storage or as a support for catalysts.
This wide spectrum of possessions is bolstered by the fact that carbon substances are capable of working at high temperatures at the most intense conditions. But, conventional carbon materials have played a significant role since ancient times (pigment in cave paintings, a part of gunpowder, composing) and have led to the technological and industrial evolution of our society (steel).
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The discovery of carbon fibers in the'60s, with its high durability and strength, was a significant landmark in the growth of the substances. In parallel, we now find that the carbon dioxide, named after submitting a conchoidal fracture surface, together with properties very similar to glass, quite delicate and hard.
At the same time, the discovery of structural types of graphitic carbon, needle, and spherules, apparently contributed to the evolution of new carbon products for quite diverse uses. The superb biocompatibility of carbon substances found from the 70s, its usage in prostheses, ligaments and heart valves, amongst others.
From the early'80s, the growth of technologies for generating blocks of high-density isotropic graphite enabled its use in high-temperature reactors, in the apparatus of synthesis of semiconductor crystals and also to elements of electrical discharge electrodes.